What is the pathogenesis of meningococcal meningitis?

What is the pathogenesis of meningococcal meningitis?

Tissue damage in meningococcal disease is often caused by host immune mechanisms activated by endotoxin. Endotoxin binds to plasma endotoxin binding protein and to the cellular receptor, CD14 and other cellular receptors triggering an intense inflammatory response.

What are the leading mechanism of meningococcal shock?

Hypovolaemia appears to be the most important early event leading to shock and is a direct result of a gross increase in vascular permeability. The inflammatory process induced by meningococci results in a major change in the permeability properties of the endothelium in all vascular beds.

What is the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis?

meningitidis invasive disease is a generalized sepsis, in which bacteria associated with microvessels induce extensive thrombosis, coagulation, congestion, and vascular leak, leading to an extensive necrosis of the skin and surrounding tissues 14.

What are the causes of meningococcemia?

Meningococcemia is caused by infection with the meningococci bacteria (Neisseria memingitidis) which are gram-negative diplococci bacteria. There are various groups of this bacteria that cause different forms of the disease and they are grouped by strains A, B, C, D, X, Y, Z, 29E and W135.

What is the mode of transmission of meningitis?

People spread meningococcal bacteria to other people by sharing respiratory and throat secretions (saliva or spit). Generally, it takes close (for example, coughing or kissing) or lengthy contact to spread these bacteria. Fortunately, they are not as contagious as germs that cause the common cold or the flu.

What are the signs and symptoms of meningococcemia?

Meningococcal Septicemia (aka Meningococcemia)

  • Fever and chills.
  • Fatigue (feeling tired)
  • Vomiting.
  • Cold hands and feet.
  • Severe aches or pain in the muscles, joints, chest, or abdomen (belly)
  • Rapid breathing.
  • Diarrhea.
  • In the later stages, a dark purple rash (see photos)

What is major cockle rash?

Meningococcal meningitis is a rare but serious bacterial infection. It causes the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed. Each year, approximately 1,000 people in the U.S. get meningococcal disease, which includes meningitis and septicemia (blood infection).

What is Neisseria disease?

Bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis cause meningococcal disease. About 1 in 10 people have these bacteria in the back of their nose and throat without being ill. This is called being ‘a carrier’. Sometimes the bacteria invade the body and cause certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease.

How can we prevent meningococcemia?

How can you prevent meningococcemia? Practicing healthy hygiene can decrease the risk of infection. This includes washing hands thoroughly and covering your mouth and nose when sneezing and coughing.

What are the two types of meningitis?

Types of meningitis

  • Viral meningitis. Viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis.
  • Bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is contagious and caused by infection from certain bacteria.
  • Fungal meningitis. Fungal meningitis is a rare type of meningitis.
  • Parasitic meningitis.
  • Non-infectious meningitis.

What are the first signs of meningococcal?


  • rash of red or purple pinprick spots, or larger bruise-like areas.
  • fever.
  • headache.
  • neck stiffness.
  • discomfort when you look at bright light.
  • nausea or vomiting.
  • diarrhoea.
  • feeling very, very sick.

What is the pathophysiology of meningococcemia in adults?

Pathophysiology. The fundamental pathologic change in meningococcemia is widespread vascular injury characterized by endothelial necrosis, intraluminal thrombosis, and perivascular hemorrhage. Endotoxin, cytokines, and free radicals damage the vascular endothelium, producing platelet deposition and vasculitis.

What are the side effects of a meningococcal infection?

Complications of meningococcal infection include the following: 1 DIC. 2 Vasomotor collapse and shock. 3 Adrenal hemorrhage and insufficiency. 4 Meningitis. 5 Cranial nerve dysfunction, particularly involving the sixth, seventh, and eighth cranial nerves. 6 (more items)

How do you find out if you have meningococcemia?

Meningococcemia is usually diagnosed through blood tests. Your doctor will take a sample of your blood and then do a blood culture to determine if bacteria are present.

Can a 9 month old have acute meningococcemia?

Patients with acute meningococcemia may present with (1) meningitis (2) meningitis with meningococcemia, or (3) meningococcemia without clinically apparent meningitis. A 9-month-old baby in septic shock with purpuric Neisseria meningitis skin lesions.

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