What can cause mutations in DNA?

What can cause mutations in DNA?

Mutations can result from DNA copying mistakes made during cell division, exposure to ionizing radiation, exposure to chemicals called mutagens, or infection by viruses. Germ line mutations occur in the eggs and sperm and can be passed on to offspring, while somatic mutations occur in body cells and are not passed on.

What are the causes and effects of DNA mutations?

Mutations can also be caused by exposure to specific chemicals or radiation. These agents cause the DNA to break down. This is not necessarily unnatural — even in the most isolated and pristine environments, DNA breaks down. Nevertheless, when the cell repairs the DNA, it might not do a perfect job of the repair.

How do you identify a mutant?

Mutation detection methods

  1. Allele Specific Oligonucleotides (ASO)
  2. Protein Truncation Test (PTT)
  3. Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (SSCP)
  4. Nucleotide sequencing.
  5. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE)
  6. Heteroduplex analysis.
  7. DNA microarray technology.

Which kind of DNA mutation is least harmful?

A point mutation-the change of a single nitrogen base in a DNA sequence -is usually the least harmful type of DNA mutation. Codons are a sequence of three nitrogen bases in a row that are “read” by messenger RNA during transcription.

What are some consequences of mutations in the DNA?

Some mutations don’t have any noticeable effect on the phenotype of an organism. This can happen in many situations: perhaps the mutation occurs in a stretch of DNA with no function, or perhaps the mutation occurs in a protein-coding region, but ends up not affecting the amino acid sequence of the protein.

Are DNA mutations always harmful?

This incorrect piece of code can become a permanent change in the DNA – a mutation that can be copied further. Mutations are rarely harmful though. Indeed, most mutations go unnoticed, as the body has mechanisms to stop a cell copying itself when a mutation occurs.

What happens to DNA as a result of mutation?

Mutation is a permanent alteration in the nucleotide sequence of DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid ). As a result of mutation, the amino acid sequence of proteins encoded by the stretch of DNA or gene is changed, which in turn, may alter the composition and/or function of body cells and tissues.

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